The World's 20 Largest Cities by Population

Updated January 18, 2022 | Infoplease Staff

The biggest cities to ever exist

For the first time in human history, a majority of people live in urban environments. The world's largest cities today fall under a class that researchers call "megacities," with a population of over 10 million people. Tokyo, the largest city in the world, has a population of 38,140,000. nearly four times that number. Of the nearly 8 billion people on Earth, 7% of them live in megacities. Learn a bit more about these massive settlements, how they compare, and how we got our rankings.

See Also: Population Statistics | World's 50 Most Populous Countries | U.S. State Capitals and Largest Cities

Note: Population figures given are in millions

Pop. 2016
Pop. 1990

Tokyo, Japan

Despite its huge prominence today, Tokyo (then Edo) only began its growth after the beginning of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It grew from a few thousand around 1500, to 1,000,000 by the early 1700s.

See also: Japan Country Profile


Delhi, India

Delhi, the heart of numerous kingdoms and empires, has been inhabited continuously since at least the 600s BC; it is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata, which takes place a few centuries before that.

See also: India Country Profile


Shanghai, China

Shanghai may be China's largest city following 1990's economic reforms, but its resident speak their own minority language. Shanghainese uses its own rules for writing, and when spoken is mutually unintelligible with Mandarin.

See also: China Country Profile


Mumbai (Bombay) India

Although Delhi is listed with a higher population, Mumbai's city proper is the most populous in India. Not only that, but Mumbai is the wealthiest city in India. Bollywood is located in Mumbai.

See also: India Country Profile


Sao Paulo, Brazil

São Paulo isn't just populous, it's one of the most diverse cities in the world with 196 significant national populations. At one point the city had a majority immigrant population.

See also: Brazil Country Profile


Beijing, China

Beijing is one of the oldest cities in China, with plenty of history to show. Among its many historic sites, the first Peking Duck restaurant (which opened in the 1400s) still operates in the city today.

See also: China Country Profile


Mexico City, Mexico

Mexico City, identified as the Federal District (Distrito Federal) until 2016, is the oldest capital and largest city in the Americas. The city is also one of only two capitals to be founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito, Ecuador.

See also: Mexico Country Profile


Keihanshin M.M.A. (Osaka), Japan

On top of its feudal history and powerful economy, Osaka's most prominent facet is its food culture. Osaka has historically been an important trade region for crops, and the foods from Osaka are some of the best loved in all of Japan. This metropolitan area also encompasses the historic cities of Kobe and Kyoto.

See also: Japan Country Profile


Al-Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt

Cairo has led two very different lives, and led much of the world with it. The Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis is contained in the modern city, which itself was the capital of the Fatimids and Ayyubids from the 900s-1200s.

See also: Egypt Country Profile


New York-Newark, USA

New York's reputation and reach are outsize for its age. People have lived around New York for a long time, but the city (then New Amsterdam) wasn't founded until the 1600s, making it one of the youngest on the list. Newark, New Jersey is technically in a different state, but the two cities are very closely linked. And, depending on the metrics, New York-Newark is the only U.S. cities close to megacity status. Los Angeles and Chicago are both much smaller by population.

See also: United States Country Profile


Dhaka, Bangladesh

Although different estimates will rank them differently, Dhaka is the largest Muslim city on our list outside of the Middle East. Under the Mughals, Dhaka was widely known as the City of Mosques.

See also: Bangladesh Country Profile


Karachi, Pakistan

Perhaps coming as a surprise due to the region's ancient history and importance to the Mughals, the city of Karachi is the youngest city on this list. It was founded in 1723 to protect Omani interests.

See also: Pakistan Country Profile


Buenos Aires, Argentina

Buenos Aires is one of the wealthiest, most vibrant, and most diverse cities in the world. It might rank even higher on our list if it didn't share the banks of the Rio de la Plata with Montevideo, another beautiful city right across the bay.

See also: Argentina Country Profile


Kolkata (Calcutta), India

Kolkata is yet another beautiful city in India, home to artists and intellectuals. One crowd you're more likely to find here than elsewhere, though, is fans of India's top two Association Football teams, East Bengal and Mohun Bagan.

See also: India Country Profile


Istanbul, Turkey

Most people know that Istanbul was Constantinople, but many people aren't aware of the name's origin. From the Greek eis tan polin, "to the city," the name marks the city's history and importance in the Eastern Mediterranean.

See also: Turkey Country Profile


Chongqing, China

Chongqing may not be as large as Beijing or Shanghai, but during the Second Sino-Japanese War it was at the heart of Chinese resistance against the Japanese occupation, earning its nickname as the City of Heroes.

See also: China Country Profile


Eko (Lagos), Nigeria

Lagos was once a small port, and an infamous center in the slave trade. Despite not being a singularly administered city, and not the capital of Nigeria, Lagos has grown to become the largest and wealthiest city in Africa.

See also: Nigeria Country Profile


Manila, Philippines

Manila, from the start, has been intercultural; the city was chartered by Spain after taking it from Brunei, who seized it from China. These influences have led to Manila having some of the world's most beautiful and unique architecture.

See also: Philippines Country Profile


Guangzhou (Canton), China

Another wartime capital of China, in this instance Guangzhou was the final mainland bastion of the Republic of China against the PLA. This connection to Taiwan helped the city greatly when China opened up trade.

See also: China Country Profile


Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Among former colonies, Rio de Janeiro has a very unique claim to fame. This coastal city became the capital of the governing Portuguese Empire, when the court relocated. It was then the capital of the Empire of Brazil.

See also: Brazil Country Profile


Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2016).

What's a City?

While people will generally agree that a city is a close area with a lot of buildings and people, defining what counts as a city for demographic purposes can be tricky. Per World Urbanization Prospects, there are three basic ways to determine a city: there's the city proper, which is just the legal bounds of the city itself; there's the urban agglomeration, which includes all connected urban area or densely settled areas around the city; and then there's the metropolitan area, which includes the range of suburbs and communities wherein much of the population regularly commutes into the city. Most of these numbers are urban agglomerations, but some are not, either due to tradition or due to particular characteristics about that city. The city with the widest disparity between these figures is Jakarta, with about 10,000,000 in the city proper and 30,000,000 in the agglomeration.

The Urban World

According to the most recent figures from the United Nations, over 50 percent of the world's population lives in an urban environment. That number is expected to reach 60 percent by 2030. Today, 23 percent of the population lives in cities exceeding one million in population, and 7 percent of the population specifically lives in megacities of more than ten million. There are 512 cities with at least 1 million people, but only 31 megacities.

Of megacities, a substantial majority are in the Global South. China is home to six megacities, and India has five. China and India collectively account for 7 of the 20 cities on our list. Japan, Brazil, and the United States are the next best represented with two megacities apiece, and 5 on our list.

What's Changing?

The most substantial changes in urban populations have been in China and sub-Saharan Africa. China has been undergoing rapid urbanization since the restructuring of their economy in the latter portion of the twentieth century. By 2030 China is expected to attain yet another megacity, marking a clear departure from its agrarian past. 20 major cities in China are currently growing at double the global average rate, such as Hong Kong, which has doubled in size in the past six decades.

In Africa, due to rapid population growth and urbanization, three new countries will host megacities within the next decade and a half: Johannesburg in South Africa, Luanda in Angola, and Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania. Additionally, the cities of Lagos, Nigeria and Kinshasa, DRC are projected to continue their meteoric rise, going from 17th and 23rd place to 9th and 12th, respectively. This can likely be attested to improved access to health services, and the nations' increasing shares of global GDP.

Sources +