Table of contents
Updated November 30, 2023 | Infoplease Staff
Hawaii flag


Hawaii State Information

Capital: Honolulu (on Oahu)

Official Name: Hawaii

Organized as territory/republic: Republic, 1893; Territory, 1900

Entered Union (rank): August 21, 1959 (50th state)

Present constitution adopted: 1950

State abbreviation/Postal code: Hawaii/HI

State Area Code: 808

Fun Facts About Hawaii

Nickname: Aloha State

Origin of name: Uncertain. The islands may have been named by Hawaii Loa, their traditional discoverer. Or they may have been named after Hawaii or Hawaiki, the traditional home of the Polynesians.

Motto: “Ua Mau Ke Ea O Ka Aina I Ka Pono” (The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness)and “Virtute et armis"

Slogan: "The Islands of Aloha"

State symbols

Flower: Hibiscus (yellow) (1988)

Tree: Kukui (candlenut) (1959)

Plant: Kalo (Taro) (2007)

Fish: Humumumunukuapua (Hawaiian triggerfish) (1984)

Bird: Nene (Hawaiian goose) (1957)

Gem: Black coral (1987)

Insect: Kamehameha butterfly (2009)

Mammal: Hawaiian monk seal (2008)

Marine Mammal: Humpback whale (1979)

Dance: Hula (1999)

Sport: Surfing (1988)

Team Sport: Outrigger canoe paddling (1986)

Song: “Hawai’i Pono’i”


Governor: Josh Green, D (to Dec. 2026)

Lieut. Governor: Sylvia Luke, D (to Dec. 2026)

Director of Finance: David McRae, Nonpartisan (to Dec. 2026)

Atty. General: Anne Lopez, D (to Dec. 2026)

U.S. Representatives: 2

Senators: Brian Schatz, D (to Jan. 2029); Mazie Hirono, D (to Jan. 2025)

Historical biographies of Congressional members

State website: www.hawaii.gov


Residents: Hawaii Residents

Resident population: 2,930,528 (36th largest state, 2023)

10 largest cities (2022): Honolulu, 343,421; East Honolulu, 50,076; Hilo, 46,559; Pearl City, 45,941; Kailua CDP, 40,402; Waipahu, 39,927; Kaneohe, 34,509; Ewa Gentry, 28,125; Mililani Town, 27,974; Kahului, 27,938

Race/Ethnicity: White alone, not Hispanic or Latino (21.4%); Black or African American alone (2.2%); Two or more races (25.0%); Hispanic or Latino (11.1%); Asian alone (36.8%); Native American and Alaska Native alone (0.4%); Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander alone (10.5%)

Religion: Catholic (20%); Evangelical Protestant (25%); Mainline Protestant (11%); Historically Black Protestant (22%); Mormon (3%); Orthodox Christian (<1%); Jehovah’s Witness (1%); Other Christian (1%); Jewish (<1%); Muslim (<1%); Buddhist (8%); Hindu (<1%); No religion (26%); Other faiths (1%)

Sex: Male (50.3%); Female (49.7%)

Age: Under 18 (21.1%); 18–64 (59.3%); 65 and over (19.6%). Median Age: 39.4


GDP: 98.2 billion dollars (41 in U.S., 2022)

Unemployment: 3.1% (2023)


Land area: 6,423 sq. mi. (16,637 sq. km.)

Geographic center: Between islands of Hawaii and Maui

Number of counties: 4

Largest county by population and area: Honolulu, 1,035,498 (2023); Hawaii, 4,028 sq mi. (10,432.47 sq km.)

State parks/recreation areas: 52 state parks, 19 natural area reserves

See additional census data

Tourism office

Hawaii is a U.S. state located in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States and northwest of American Samoa. It is made up of eight main islands — Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, and Kahoʻolawe — plus several uninhabited islands and islets. Its capital is Honolulu, located on the island of Oahu. Hawaii is known for its beaches, volcanoes, and lush rainforests.

Hawaii Geography

Hawaii, often referred to as Hawaiʻi, lies 2,397 mi west-southwest of San Francisco and is a 1,523-mile chain of islets and eight main islands—Hawaii (also called the Big Island) is the largest island, followed by Kahoolawe, Maui, Lanai (Lānaʻi), Molokai, Oahu (Oʻahu), Kauai, and Niihau. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, other than Midway, are administratively part of Hawaii.

The temperature is mild in Hawaii. Cane sugar, pineapple, flowers, and nursery products are the state’s chief products. Hawaii also grows coffee beans, bananas, and macadamia nuts. The tourist business is Hawaii's largest source of outside income.

The islands of Hawaii are actually the tops of a submerged mountain range formed through volcanic activity over millions of years. Hawaii's highest peak is Mauna Kea (13,796 ft) (4,205 m). Mauna Loa (13,679 ft; 4,169 m) is the largest volcanic mountain in the world by volume. It is also among the most active, having erupted 34 times since 1843.[1] Another active volcano is Kilauea. It last erupted in 1990, sending lava through the town of Kalapana. When the eruption ended, a new coastline, 1,000 feet (304.8 meters) into the Pacific, appeared.[2]

The islands also include a variety of natural resources. They hold 27 of 38 Holdrige life zones, making them the most habitat-rich place on Earth.[3] These habitats help protect a variety of flora and fauna. The nene (Hawaiian goose) and silversword plant are found no place else on Earth.

The major points of interest are Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Hawaii); Haleakala National Park (Maui); Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park (Hawaii); the Polynesian Cultural Center (Oahu); the USS Arizona and USS Missouri Memorial at Pearl Harbor; the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific (Oahu); and Iolani Palace (the only royal palace in the U.S.), Bishop Museum, and Waikiki Beach (all in Honolulu). Visitors to the state’s national parks can even download the NPS mobile app which uses online services to provide updates on the parks.

Hawaii People and Population

Given Hawaii’s geographic location, it is not surprising that the state’s largest demographic group is Asian alone (36.8%). Other groups include white alone, not Hispanic or Latino (21.4%); Black or African American alone (2.2%); two or more races (25.0%); Hispanic or Latino (11.1%); Asian alone (36.8%); Native American and Alaska Native alone (0.4%); and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander alone (10.5%).[4]

The full religious affiliation breakdown in the state includes a significant Buddhist population (8%), reflecting the island state’s link to Asian culture. Other major religious groups include Catholic (20%); Evangelical Protestant (25%); mainline Protestant (11%); historically Black Protestant (22%); Mormon (3%), Orthodox Christian (<1%); Jehovah’s Witness (1%); other Christian (1%); Jewish (<1%); Muslim (<%); Hindu (<1%); no religion (26%); and other faiths (1%).[5]

Educational attainment is an important characteristic of the people of Hawaii. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2022, 92.7% of the population aged 25 and over had at least a high school diploma or equivalent, and 34.3% had a bachelor's degree or higher. However, there are disparities in educational attainment among different ethnic groups. For example, only 18.3% of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders aged 25 and over had a bachelor's degree or higher compared to 47.6% of Asians and 31.3% of whites.[6]

Population trends in Hawaii are also notable. The state experienced a population decline of 0.48% from 2021 to 2022. On average for the year, 26 more people moved out of Hawaii each day than moved into the state.[7] The aging population is also a concern, with a median age of 40.2 years in 2020 compared to the national median age of 38.8 years.[8][9][10]

Immigration has played a significant role in shaping the population of Hawaii. The state has a diverse immigrant population, with a large number of immigrants from Asia and the Pacific Islands. In 2021, 18.8% of the population was foreign-born compared to the national average of 13.6%.[11] The largest immigrant groups in Hawaii are Filipinos, Japanese, and Chinese.[12]

Hawaii Government

Like all state governments, the government of the state of Hawaii consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The current (and first) constitution was adopted in 1959 when Hawaii became a state.

Currently (2023), Governor Josh Green heads the executive branch. The governor is elected to a four-year term and is limited to two consecutive terms. So a governor could serve two terms, skip a term, and be elected for two more consecutive terms.

State elections are held the same year as the national midterm elections, and the governor and lieutenant governor are elected. Unlike most states, Hawaii does not have a secretary of state or a treasurer. Instead, the lieutenant governor carries out duties usually assigned to a secretary of state. The governor appoints a person to the office of director of finance who is confirmed by the state senate. The governor also appoints, and the Senate confirms, the attorney general. The terms of all executive branch appointees coincide with the terms of the governor.

The Hawai’i legislature consists of a 51-member House of Representatives and a 25-member state senate. State senators serve staggered four-year terms, while all representatives face reelection every two years. Currently, Hawaii has a Democratic trifecta, where the Democratic Party controls the governorship and both houses of the state legislature. The House of Representatives includes 45 Democrats and 6 Republicans, while the Senate has 23 Democrats and 2 Republicans. Hawaii also has a Democratic triplex, where the Democrats control the governorship and the offices of secretary of state and attorney general. Since Hawaii has no secretary of state and the governor appoints the attorney general, the governor’s party is virtually guaranteed a triplex. Hawaii’s two representatives to the United States House of Representatives, Jill Tokuda and Ed Case, are both Democrats, as are the Aloha State’s two senators, Brian Schatz and Mazie Hirono.

The Hawai’i judicial branch includes eight types of courts, each with specific jurisdictions. Environmental courts, which were established in 2014, deal with cases involving water, forests, streams, beaches, air, and mountains, as well as marine life. District courts handle traffic violations and minor criminal cases, while family courts handle cases involving children, domestic relations, and domestic violence. Circuit courts have general jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. They also deal with probate, guardianship, and criminal felonies. The land court handles cases dealing with land registration, The tax appeals court hears appeals of cases involving real property taxation. The intermediate court of appeals, which has seven judges, takes cases appealed from the lower courts, while the state supreme court is the highest court in the state. Justices are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the state senate.[13]

At the municipal level, Hawaii has four counties: the city and county of Honolulu, the county of Hawai’i, the county of Maui, and the county of Kaua’i. Each county has an elected mayor and council, and there are no town governments in the state. Some government functions provided by towns and cities in other states, such as law enforcement, are carried out by county governments in Hawaii. Other functions provided by towns and cities in other states are provided at the state level through the legislature in the state of Hawaii. For example, the state operates the education system.[14]

Hawaii Economy

Hawaii's economy relies heavily on tourism, which was significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed by the CDC guidelines and the Hawaii State Department of Health. In March 2020, before the pandemic restrictions, the unemployment rate was 2.2%. In April, it was a staggering 22.6%. The rate remained high through most of 2021, and by May 2023, the rate was a healthy 3.1%, thanks in part to the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines and to the lifting of travel restrictions.[15] By 2022, Hawaii's gross domestic product (GDP) had recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic and was above pre-pandemic levels at 98.2 billion dollars.[16]

The tourism industry accounts for approximately 23% of the state's GDP and directly impacts the well-being of thousands of Hawaiians.[17] By April 2023, the number of visitors to Hawaii was 97.4% of April 2019 before the pandemic. And visitors were injecting more money into the Hawaiian economy than their pre-pandemic counterparts had. In April 2023, visitors spent $1.7 billion, a 30.7% increase over April 2019.[18]

Other major industries in Hawaii include agriculture, health care, manufacturing, and construction. In fact, Hawaii ranks first in overall health and public health and second in access to health-care providers.[19] The principal products of the state’s agriculture industry include coffee, macadamia nuts, papayas, and avocados. Sugarcane and pineapple are grown on large plantations on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai, while coffee is grown in the Kona region of the Big Island.

Hawaii Interesting Facts

The very name “Hawai’i” conjures up images of pristine sandy beaches, roaring surf, rumbling volcanoes, and endless horizons. However, the state provides so much more.

Pearl Harbor

Early in the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, a day that President Franklin Roosevelt called one “that will live in infamy,” bombers and fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy took off from aircraft carriers in the Pacific. Their target? The vast naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was the headquarters for the U.S. Pacific fleet.

The attack caught the American military completely unprepared. Within 90 minutes, Japanese aircraft had sunk 19 warships and 300 aircraft and killed more than 2,400 American soldiers. Almost half of the casualties were on board the destroyer, the USS Arizona.[20]

Today, the National Park Service administers the Pearl Harbor National Memorial on the site of the attack. Much of the wreckage of the USS Arizona remains as a somber reminder of the carnage that happened here.

The Hula

Mention Hawaii, and many people think of flower lei greetings and hula dancers. The hula, however, is far more than a tourist attraction. It is a cultural art form steeped in the traditions and history of the Hawaiian people.

Long before the arrival of Europeans in the 1700s, hula was a part of Hawaiian culture. Dancers would dance to honor gods or chiefs in intricate ceremonies. The dances also portrayed stories vital to the islanders’ well-being. Native Hawaiians had no written language to pass down stories, so the dances served that purpose, preserving much of their history.

Christian missionaries who arrived in the 1800s believed the hula was a pagan ritual and outlawed public dances. This only forced the dancers to go underground and perform in secret. The climate improved somewhat when King David Kalakaua took the throne and encouraged tolerance of the dance. The hula survived, but with some Christian-influenced changes. For example, the chants became more like Christian hymns, and they honored Hawaiian kings and queens, not the ancient gods.

After the United States took over the islands in 1898, the hula continued, but it soon became more of a tourist attraction than a cultural example. Throughout American rule, Hawaiian culture continued to erode. At one point after Hawaii became a state, the Hawaiian language was not taught in school, and the language, along with the chants of the hula, almost disappeared.

The civil rights era of the 1960s on the mainland also had an impact on Hawaii. Laws were changed to make Hawaiian one of the two official languages, and the Hawaiian language, culture, and dance became required courses in all schools in the state.[21]

Mauna Kea

Rising majestically on the landscape of the island of Hawaii, snow-capped Mauna Kea dominates the landscape. Its peak lies at 13,803 feet (4,207.3 m) above sea level, making it the highest mountain in the state. However, that height doesn’t even come close to ranking in the top 100 highest mountains in the world. The top spot goes to the fabled Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, which is 29,029 feet (8,848 m).[22]

But there is another method to measure the height of Mauna Kea: from its base to its summit. That base lies deep under the waters of the Pacific Ocean. While Mt. Everest is the highest peak above sea level, if you calculate Mauna Kea’s height from its base to its summit, it measures 33,500 feet (10,210 m), dwarfing Mt. Everest by 4,471 feet (1,362 m), claiming yet another record for the Aloha State![23]

Hawaii History

First settled by Polynesians sailing from other Pacific islands between 300 and 600 A.D., Hawaii had a vibrant culture and society centuries before the first Europeans arrived in the late 1700s. Life on the islands began to change in 1778, when British captain James Cook, who called Hawaii the Sandwich Islands, arrived.

Pre-Colonial History

Hawaii’s highly developed society was based on a rigorous caste system. People were born into a specific class and remained there for their entire lives. Their children were also part of the same caste. People worshipped many gods and followed strict codes of conduct.

Each island was independent until King Kamehameha I united all islands in 1810. In 1840, King Kamehameha III granted a constitution that divided government power among three branches.

Throughout most of the 1800s, Hawaii retained its independence although the islands had growing populations of Europeans and Americans. In 1819, Queen Ka-ahumanu welcomed the first Protestant missionaries. Whalers began arriving in the 1820s. At the same time, American planters were setting up sugarcane, pineapple, and coffee plantations. The plantations meant increasing U.S. business and political involvement. It also meant the arrival of many immigrants to work on the plantations. In 1853, Native Hawaiians accounted for 97 percent of the islands’ population. By 1923, this number had fallen to 16 percent.[24]

Colonial History

In 1877, a group of Native Hawaiians and foreigners rebelled and forced the king to accept a new constitution that stripped the monarch of key powers. The constitution also effectively denied the vote to anyone who was not white and a plantation owner.[25] Then, in 1891, the king died and was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Liliuokalani who tried to restore the monarch’s powers. She was unsuccessful, and in 1893, the planters, supported by the U.S. government, deposed the queen and founded a republic. The president of the Republic of Hawaii was Sanford B. Dole.

Modern History

From its beginning, the government of the republic was only a stopgap measure. What the planters really wanted was for the United States to annex the islands. Opinion on the mainland, however, was mixed. Those in favor saw annexation as a path forward to Pacific markets and as a strategic military base. Those against it saw it as unconstitutional. Racism also played a role in the opposition. If Hawaii was annexed, its Asian population would have a path to citizenship at a time when the United States was trying to exclude Asian immigrants.

The outbreak of the Spanish-American War changed the annexation debate. Realizing the need for a strategic military base in the Pacific, the United States annexed the islands in 1898. They were granted self-governing status in 1900.

The campaign to make Hawaii a state started almost immediately after annexation, but the movement met with little success. Lack of statehood meant that Hawaiian residents did not have voting representatives in Congress and were often denied needed funding for infrastructure or federal programs. Nevertheless, the movement continued. By 1940, two of every three voters in Hawaii favored statehood.

The Japanese attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, was directly responsible for U.S. entry into World War II. It also emphasized the strategic importance of the island territory to American interests in the Pacific. With the entire nation fighting to defeat the Axis Powers, statehood for Hawaii gained little attention, but after the war, several statehood initiatives were introduced in Congress. None passed.

Things changed in the late 1950s when the non-voting Democratic delegate to Congress won over key senators to his cause. At the same time, Cold War tensions helped key players see that the large Asian population in the islands could help bolster American ties with Asia. In 1959, Congress voted to make Hawaii a state. Later that year, Hawaii’s voters approved statehood by a 17 to 1 margin.

Not all Hawaiians welcomed statehood. Many Native Hawaiians continued to consider Hawaii an independent nation and viewed the Americans as invaders. In 1993, the United States government formally apologized to the Native Hawaiians for its role in overthrowing the monarchy. The resolution, however, did nothing to compensate Hawaiians for the land the United States had appropriated.[26]

In 2008, Hawaii-born Barack Obama became the first person from the state to be elected President of the United States.

People Also Ask...

That’s everything you need to know about Hawaii, but how well do you know the other U.S. states and their geography? For the ultimate test, try out this challenge in which you identify states by their shapes: Infoplease's State Outlines Quiz.

People also ask the following three questions about life in Hawaii.

Which Island Should I Go to in Hawaii?

That’s a difficult one to answer because each island has something to offer the visitor. Maui’s resorts, for example, cater to travelers wanting all the luxury touches. Oahu offers the incredibly moving and historic Pearl Harbor Memorial as well as the most crowded (yet still spectacular) Waikiki Beach. The Big Island offers volcano viewing up close and personal. Kauai offers more untamed wilderness. Choose Lanai if you just want to chill.

What is the Best Time to Visit Hawaii?

This one is simple: any time! Hawaii’s mild climate and abundant sunshine make it a great destination year-round. That said, here’s some information. September and October offer the fewest crowds and, consequently, the lowest prices. They are also spectacular for swimming and snorkeling. November to March brings Hawaiian winter and more rain, but it is still spectacular and warm, just not as warm as summer. Hurricane season is from June 1 to November 30, so if you’re afraid of getting caught in one, those are the dates to avoid. However, hurricanes are a rarity. The last one was Hurricane Lane in 2018. The one before was Iniki in 1992.[27]

Is Hawaii Very Expensive?

In a word, yes. Remember, you’re literally thousands of miles from other land areas, so everything has to be shipped to the island other than what is grown or made there. If you don’t want to rely on locally grown produce and fruit, you need to purchase imported items. The price you pay for those includes a markup for shipping. Housing, groceries, utilities, and transportation are all at the top of national and international charts. In essence, living in paradise isn’t free. It’s not even cheap!

See more on Hawaii:
Encyclopedia: Hawaii
Encyclopedia: Geography
Encyclopedia: Economy
Encyclopedia: Government
Encyclopedia: History
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All U.S. States: Population & Economy
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All U.S. States: Society & Culture:
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National Public Radio Stations


Selected famous natives and residents:


The 50 States of America | U.S. State Information
Sources +

[1] United States Geological Survey. Mauna Loa. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/mauna-loa

[2] A Brief History of the Hawaiian Islands. Gohawaii. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://www.gohawaii.com/hawaiian-culture/history

[3] Natural Resources. Hawaii Tourism Authority. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://www.hawaiitourismauthority.org/what-we-do/hta-programs/natural-resources/

[4] United States Census Bureau. (2022). QuickFacts Hawaii. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/HI

[5] Religious Landscape Study. pewresearch.org. Retrieved on June 14, 2023 from https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/religious-landscape-study/state/hawaii/

[6] United States Census Bureau. American Community Survey 5-Year Data (2009-2021). U.S. Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/data/developers/data-sets/acs-5year.html

[7] Hawaii Census. (2022). 2022 State Population Estimates. Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. https://census.hawaii.gov/main/2022-state-pe/

[8] Hawaii Census. (2023). Decennial Census Demographic Profiles and DHC Data Released. Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. https://census.hawaii.gov/main/2020-decennial_dp-dhc-release/

[9] United States Census Bureau. (2020). Census Bureau Releases 2020 Demographic Analysis Estimates. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2020/2020-demographic-analysis-estimates.html

[10] United States Census Bureau. (2021). Hawaii. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://data.census.gov/profile/Hawaii?g=040XX00US15

[11] United States Census Bureau. (2021). Hawaii. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://data.census.gov/profile/Hawaii?g=040XX00US15

[12] United States Census Bureau. American Community Survey 5-Year Data (2009-2021). U.S. Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/data/developers/data-sets/acs-5year.html

[13] Legislative Reference Bureau. The Judiciary. Hawai’i State Judiciary. https://lrb.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/Judiciary_guide.pdf

[14] Department of Budget and Finance. About State Government. State of Hawai’i.


[15] U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Economy at a Glance: Hawaii. U.S. Department of Labor. https://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.hi.htm

[16] Federal Reserve Economic Data. (2023, March 31). Gross Domestic Product: All Industry Total in Hawaii. The Board of Governors. https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/HINGSP

[17] Experts: 77% of Hawaii’s Economy Isn’t Tourism; Policymakers Can Take Steps to Reopen It. (2020, April 10). hawaiipublicradio. https://www.hawaiipublicradio.org/business-news/2020-04-10/experts-77-of-hawaiis-economy-isnt-tourism-policymakers-can-take-steps-to-reopen-it

[18] Tsai, M. (2023, May 31). Visitor Arrivals Hit Highest Recovery Rate Since Pandemic. spectrumlocalnews. https://spectrumlocalnews.com/hi/hawaii/news/2023/05/30/visitor-arrivals-hit-highest-recovery-rate-since-pandemic#:~:text=in%20April%202019-,According%20to%20the%20newly%20released%20data%2C%20827%2C537%20visitors%20arrived%20in,benchmark%20year%20before%20the%20pandemic

[19] Lauer, N. (2017, April 4). Hawaii’s Secrets: Sun, Surf, Health Care. usnews.com. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/articles/2017-04-14/hawaiis-secrets-sun-surf-health-care#:~:text=The%20Aloha%20State%20stands%20No,at%20keeping%20it%20that%20way

[20] Citino, R., Stone, S.Z. Remembering Pearl Harbor. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/topics/pearl-harbor-december-7-1941

[21] Ng, R. (2022, March 22). The surprising story of Hawai’i’s hula tradition. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/the-surprising-history-of-hawaiis-hula-tradition

[22] List of Highest Mountains on Earth. en.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest_mountains_on_Earth

[23] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. What is the highest point on Earth as measured from Earth’s center? U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved on June 20, 2023 from https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/highestpoint.html

[24] Hawaii (2022, December 13). History.com. https://www.history.com/topics/us-states/hawaii

[25] Nakamura, K. (2023, June 1). Hawaii’s Long Road to Becoming America’s 50th State. History.com. https://www.history.com/news/hawaii-50th-state-1959

[26] Nakamura, K. (2023, June 1). Hawaii’s Long Road to Becoming America’s 50th State. History.com. https://www.history.com/news/hawaii-50th-state-1959

[27] Fromholz, J. (2023, March 13). The Best Time to Visit Hawaii: skip the clouds and crowds. thehawaiivacationguide.com. https://thehawaiivacationguide.com/best-time-to-visit-hawaii/#:~:text=The%20Fewest%20Crowds%20in%20Hawaii,-If%20you're&text=To%20avoid%20the%20crowds%2C%20these,reflects%20expected%202023%20visitor%20trends

See also: