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adaptation

(Encyclopedia) adaptation, in biology, has several meanings. It can mean the adjustment of living matter to environmental conditions and to other living things either in an organism's lifetime (…

Otway, Thomas

(Encyclopedia) Otway, Thomas, 1652–85, English dramatist, educated at Winchester and at Oxford. After failing as an actor, Otway wrote his first play, Alcibiades, produced in 1675. Later plays…

plant breeding

(Encyclopedia) plant breeding, science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages…

Mitchell, Margaret

(Encyclopedia) Mitchell, Margaret, 1900–1949, American novelist, b. Atlanta, Ga. Her one novel, Gone with the Wind (1936; Pulitzer Prize), a romantic, panoramic portrait of the Civil War and…

Arne, Thomas Augustine

(Encyclopedia) Arne, Thomas Augustine ärn, 1710–78, English composer. Arne composed the song Rule, Britannia, based on an ode by James Thomson. He composed new music for an adaptation of Milton'…

ethnocentrism

(Encyclopedia) ethnocentrism, the feeling that one's group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to those of other groups. It is coupled with a generalized…

Gerard, John

(Encyclopedia) Gerard, John jr´ärd, jrärd´, 1545–1612, English botanist and barber-surgeon. He compiled a catalog (1596) of the plants in his garden, the first of its kind to be published in…

Maerlant, Jacob van

(Encyclopedia) Maerlant, Jacob van yä´kp vän mär´länt, c.1235–c.1300, Flemish poet, earliest important figure of Dutch literature. He wrote lyric poems and chivalric verse romances after the French…