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négritude

(Encyclopedia) négritude ng´rtood, –tyood, a literary movement on the part of French-speaking African and Caribbean writers who lived in Paris during the 1930s, 40s, and 50s. Adherents of…

Douglas, Norman

(Encyclopedia) Douglas, Norman (George Norman Douglas), 1868–1952, British novelist and essayist, b. Scotland. He spent the years from 1894 to 1896 in diplomatic service in Russia but resigned from…

Spengler, Oswald

(Encyclopedia) Spengler, Oswald spng´glr, Ger. ôs´vält shpng´glr, 1880–1936, German historian and philosopher. His studies covered many fields, among them mathematics, science, philosophy,…

Dionysius the Areopagite, Saint

(Encyclopedia) Dionysius the Areopagite, Saint dnsh´s, ârp´jt, fl. 1st cent. &AD;, Athenian Christian, converted by St. Paul. Acts 17.34. Tradition has made him a martyr and the first…

Slavophiles and Westernizers

(Encyclopedia) Slavophiles and Westernizers, designation for two groups of intellectuals in mid-19th-century Russia that represented opposing schools of thought concerning the nature of Russian…

Chang Chih-tung

(Encyclopedia) Chang Chih-tung jäng´ jûr´-doong´, 1837–1909, Chinese Ch'ing dynasty statesman and educational reformer. He occupied the high post of governor-general for over two decades, first…

Niebuhr, Helmut Richard

(Encyclopedia) Niebuhr, Helmut Richard, 1894–1962, American theologian, b. Wright City, Mo., grad. Elmhurst College (Ill.), 1912, and Eden Theological Seminary, 1915, M.A. Washington Univ., 1917, B.D…

courtly love

(Encyclopedia) courtly love, philosophy of love and code of lovemaking that flourished in France and England during the Middle Ages. Although its origins are obscure, it probably derived from the…

Mohammed Zahir Shah Biography

Afghan KingDied: July 20, 2007 (Kabul, Afghanistan) Best Known as: former King of Afghanistan Former king of Afghanistan, who earned the title “father of…

Peter the Great

Name at birth: Petr AlekseevichPeter the Great was the Russian czar who transformed Russia from an isolated agricultural society into an Empire on a par with European powers. Peter was the son of…