Chang Chih-tung

Chang Chih-tung jängˈ jûrˈ-do͝ongˈ [key], 1837–1909, Chinese Ch'ing dynasty statesman and educational reformer. He occupied the high post of governor-general for over two decades, first of Guangdong and Guangxi provs. (1884–89), and later of Hunan and Hubei provs. (1889–1907). In that position he vigorously pressed the late Ch'ing self-strengthening program, establishing an arsenal, iron- and steelworks, military and naval academies, and schools of mining, agriculture, commerce, and industry. Chang encouraged the early reform movement between 1895 and 1898 (see K'ang Yu-wei), advocating a balance between study of the Chinese heritage and adoption of Western scientific and technical knowledge. In the end, however, he supported the coup of Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi against the Hundred Days' Reform (1898), convinced that K'ang was surrendering too much to Western culture. After the disastrous Boxer Uprising he urged radical educational change, including a public school system from kindergarten to university and abolition of the traditional civil service Chinese examination system. He was appointed (1907) head of the new ministry of education.

See W. Ayers, Chang Chih-tung and Educational Reform in China (1971).

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