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(Encyclopedia) bourse bo?ors, term applied to a European stock exchange. The first international bourse was established in Antwerp in the 16th cent. The Paris bourse, dating from 1720 but completely?


(Encyclopedia) over-the-counter, method of buying and selling securities outside the organized stock exchange. Unlike an organized stock exchange, the over-the-counter market is composed of dealers?

Ward, John Quincy Adams

(Encyclopedia) Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830?1910, American sculptor, b. Urbana, Ohio. He was trained under H. K. Brown, whom he assisted in the execution of the equestrian statue of George?

Dillon, Clarence Douglas

(Encyclopedia) Dillon, Clarence Douglas d?l?n, 1909?2003, U.S. secretary of the treasury (1961?65), b. Geneva, Switzerland (of American parents). After graduation (1931) from Harvard he became a?

program trading

(Encyclopedia) program trading, a form of securities trading, also known as index arbitrage. Program traders exploit the price discrepancies between indexes of stocks and futures contracts by using?

Martin, William McChesney, Jr.

(Encyclopedia) Martin, William McChesney, Jr., 1906?98, U.S. banker, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1951?70), b. St. Louis. After an early career as a stockbroker,?


(Encyclopedia) clearing, in banking, the periodic settling of bankers' claims against each other, for which local banks establish clearinghouse associations. Clearinghouses are said to have?

puts and calls

(Encyclopedia) puts and calls, in securities trading. A call is a contract that gives the holder the right to purchase a given stock at a specific price within a designated period of time. It is the?


(Encyclopedia) panic, crisis in financial and economic conditions, marked by public loss of confidence in the financial structure. Panics are characterized by a general rush of investors to convert?

Dow Jones Average

(Encyclopedia) Dow Jones Average, indicators used to measure and report value changes in representative stock groupings on the New York stock exchange. There are four different averages?industrial?