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The Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court Building. The figures up top include Chief Justices Taft and Marshall, Order, Liberty, and Authority.  Familiarize yourself with the United States Supreme Court, made…

Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982)

Case SummaryA. Ernest Fitzgerald claimed that he lost his employment with the Air Force because he gave testimony before Congress that was critical of his employer. He tried to…

United States v. Nixon (1974)

Historical BackgroundThe early 1970s was a time of growing distrust in the National Government. The Pentagon Papers exposed the intentional deception of the American people abo…

Agostini v. Felton (1997)

Case SummaryA federal district court and Court of Appeals ruled against New York City, stating that the city could not have public school teachers provide supplemental instruct…

Baker v. Carr (1962)

Case SummaryIn the State legislature of Tennessee, representation was determined by a 1901 law setting the number of legislators for each county. Urban areas, which had grown g…

City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey (1978)

Case SummaryCities, including Philadelphia, and landfill operators, sued to challenge a New Jersey law that prevented out-of-State waste from being treated or disposed of withi…

Communist Party of Indiana v. Whitcomb (1974)

Case SummaryIn 1972, the Communist Party of Indiana was denied a place on the presidential ballot because it refused to provide an affidavit, sworn under oath, that it did not …

Flast v. Cohen (1968)

Case SummaryA federal court ruled that Flast and the other plaintiffs did not have standing as taxpayers to challenge the use of federal funds for religious schools. “Standing“…

Goldberg v. Kelly (1970)

Case SummaryJohn Kelly and others sued when State and local officials terminated their welfare benefits without having given them prior notice and an opportunity to be heard. T…