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Brewer's: Caliph

or Calif. A title given to the successors of Mahomet. Among the Saracens a caliph is one vested with supreme dignity. The caliphat of Bagdad reached its highest splendour under Haroun al…

caliphate

(Encyclopedia) caliphate kl´ft, –ft, the rulership of Islam; caliphkl´f, the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a…

Abbasid

(Encyclopedia) Abbasid b´sd, ´bsd or Abbaside–sd, –sd, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized…

Husayn ibn Ali

(Encyclopedia) Husayn ibn Ali ´bn ä´l, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire. In…

Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah

(Encyclopedia) Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah ä´boo äl-äbäs´ äs-säfä´, d. 754, 1st Abbasid caliph (749–54). Raised to the caliphate by the armed might of Abu Muslim, he took the reign name as-Saffah […

Usuman dan Fodio

(Encyclopedia) Usuman dan Fodio 1754–1817. Fulani religious and political leader. Beginning as an itinerant Muslim missionary in northern Nigeria, he gained a large following for his syncretic…

As Salamiya

(Encyclopedia) As Salamiya äs-säläm´yä, town (1988 est. pop. 47,000), W central Syria. It is a transportation center situated in a fertile plain where cereals, vegetables, and cotton are grown. As…

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad

(Encyclopedia) Ibn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad bn tm´y, 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the…

Kufa

(Encyclopedia) Kufa koo´f, former Mesopotamian city, near the Euphrates River, c.110 mi (177 km) S of Baghdad. Founded in 638, Kufa soon rivaled Basra in size. The Arab governor of Iraq resided…