Peru Map: Regions, Geography, Facts & Figures

Peru is a country located on the map of South America, bordered by Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. Its capital is Lima, and its official language is Spanish. Peru is known for its diverse culture, history, and geography. Below, we will explore the different regions of the map of Peru, its major cities, and the natural wonders that make it a popular tourist destination.

If you want to discover more in-depth information on Peru as a country, check out our Peru Profile!

Plus, test your country knowledge with our world geography quiz on How Much Do You Know About the Amazon River?

Peru Facts: History

Peru has a rich history that dates back to ancient civilizations such as the Incas, who built Machu Picchu and other impressive structures. The Incas were conquered by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and Peru became a colony of Spain until it gained its independence in 1821.

Peru has since undergone periods of political instability, including a long-standing internal conflict that lasted from the 1980s to the early 2000s. Today, Peru is a democratic country with a growing economy and a diverse population that includes indigenous communities, Afro-Peruvians, and people of European and Asian descent.

Peru Facts: Geography

Nestled between Columbia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Ecuador, Peru is a diverse country with a variety of landscapes, including the Andes Mountains, the Amazon rainforest, and the Pacific Ocean coastline. The Cordillera Blanca mountain range, located in the central Andes, is home to some of the highest peaks in South America.

Peru is further divided into 25 regions on the political map, including:

  • Arequipa: known for its colonial architecture and nearby volcanoes. It is also the second most populous city in Peru after Lima.
  • Cusco: A city located in southeastern Peru, known for its ancient architecture and historical significance. It was the capital of the Inca empire and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Piura: located on the coast and known for its beaches and surf. It is also home to the Tumbes National Reserve.
  • Lake Titicaca: the highest navigable lake in the world, located on the border of Peru and Bolivia. It is home to several indigenous communities and the Uros floating islands.
  • The Amazon: a vast region of rainforest covering much of eastern Peru. It is known for its biodiversity, indigenous communities, and ecotourism.
  • The Andes Mountains: a range that runs through much of South America, including Peru. It is home to several peaks over 6,000 meters, including Huascarán, the highest mountain in Peru.
  • Other Major Regions: Madre de Dios, Puno, San Martin, Moquegua, Apurimac, and several more also complete the regions of this South American country.

Peru Facts: Tourist Attractions

Peru is a popular tourist destination, known for its rich history and breathtaking landscapes. Some of the top tourist attractions in Peru include:

  • Machu Picchu: An ancient Inca city located in the Andes Mountains. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in South America, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and one of the Seven New Wonders of the World.
  • The Amazon Rainforest: One of the most biodiverse regions on the planet. It is home to several indigenous communities, wildlife, and ecotourism activities.
  • The Cordillera Blanca: A mountain range in the Andes known for its scenic beauty. It is also a popular destination for hiking and mountaineering.
  • National Parks: Peru has several national parks, such as Manu National Park and Huascarán National Park. These parks are home to several endangered species and offer opportunities for eco-tourism.
  • Major Cities: Some of the major cities in Peru include Lima, Arequipa, Cusco, Piura, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Ica, Huancayo, Iquitos, and Cajamarca.
Machu Picchu, Peru
Image Source: Getty Images

People Also Ask...

If you're inspecting the Peru country map, you may have some queries about the region. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions, along with their answers.

What Is Peru Famous For?

Peru is famous for its history, culture, and natural wonders, including Machu Picchu, the Nazca Lines, the Colca Canyon, the Huacachina Oasis, and the Amazon Rainforest. It is also known for its cuisine, including ceviche, lomo saltado, and pisco sour.

What Language Is Spoken in Peru?

The official language of Peru is Spanish, although there are many indigenous languages spoken throughout the country, including Quechua and Aymara.

What Are the Major Cities in Peru?

The major cities in Peru include Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, and Cusco. Each city has its own unique culture, history, and attractions.

What Is the Geography of Peru Like?

Peru has a diverse geography that includes the Andes Mountains, the Amazon Rainforest, and the coastal desert. It is also home to several lakes, natural reserves, and rivers, like the Ucayali.