Trappers and traders, including Jedediah Smith and Peter Skene Ogden, entered the Nevada area in the 1820s. In 1843–1845, John C. Frémont and Kit Carson explored the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada. The U.S. obtained the region in 1848 following the Mexican War, and the first permanent settlement was a Mormon trading post near present-day Genoa.
The driest state in the nation, with an average annual rainfall of only about 7 in., much of Nevada is uninhabited, sagebrush-covered desert. The wettest part of the state receives about 40 in. of precipitation per year, while the driest spot has less than 4 in. per year.
Nevada was made famous by the discovery of the Comstock Lode, the richest known U.S. silver deposit, in 1859, and its mines have produced large quantities of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, barite, and tungsten. Oil was discovered in 1954. Gold now far exceeds all other minerals in value of production.
In 1931, the state created two industries, divorce and gambling. For many years, Reno and Las Vegas were the “divorce capitals of the nation.” More liberal divorce laws in many states have ended this distinction, but Nevada is still the gambling capital of the U.S. and a leading entertainment center. In 2009, 12.5% of Nevadaâs general revenue came from gambling, which brought in $830 million. Nevada's lack of a lottery might account for its 12th place ranking for total gambling revenue.
The state's leading agricultural industry is cattle and calves. Agricultural crops consist mainly of hay, alfalfa seed, barley, wheat, and potatoes.
Nevada manufactures gaming equipment; lawn and garden irrigation devices; titanium products; seismic and machinery monitoring devices; and specialty printing.
Lake Tahoe, Reno, and Las Vegas are major resorts. Recreation areas include Pyramid Lake, Lake Tahoe, and Lake Mead and Lake Mohave, both in Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Other attractions are Hoover Dam, Virginia City, and Great Basin National Park (includes Lehman Caves).
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Selected famous natives and residents:
- Eva Adams former director of U.S. Mint;
- Andre Agassi tennis player;
- Raymond T. Baker former director of U.S. Mint;
- Helen Delich Bentley government official and newspaperwoman;
- Robert Caples painter;
- Walter Van Tilburg Clark writer;
- Henry Comstock prospector;
- Abby Dalton actress;
- Michele Greene actress;
- Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins author and Paiute interpreter and peacemaker;
- Jack Kramer tennis player;
- Paul Laxalt politician;
- Robert Laxalt writer;
- William Lear aviation inventor;
- Robert C. Lynch surgeon;
- John W. Mackay benefactor, one of Big Four of Comstock Lode;
- Emma Nevada opera singer;
- Thelma “Pat” Nixon first lady;
- James W. Nye territory governor and senator;
- Lute Pease cartoonist and Pulitzer Prize winner;
- Edna Purviance actress;
- Patty Sheehan golfer;
- Jack Wilson Paiute Indian prophet;
- George Wingfield mining millionaire.