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John Gibbon

John GibbonBorn: 1903 Heart-Lung Machine. Gibbon's development of the heart-lung machine made possible the first successful open-heart operation in 1953. Improved versions allow surgeons today…

William GIBBONS

GIBBONS, William, a Delegate from Georgia; born at Bear Bluff, S.C., April 8, 1726; studied law in Charleston, S.C.; was admitted to the bar and practiced in Savannah, Ga.; member of the coloni…

James A. GIBBONS

GIBBONS, James A., a Representative from Nevada; born in Sparks, Washoe County, Nev., December 16, 1944; B.S., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev., 1967; M.S., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev., 19…

Sam Melville GIBBONS

GIBBONS, Sam Melville, a Representative from Florida; born in Tampa, Hillsborough County, Fla., January 20, 1920; attended the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.; LL.B., University of Flo…

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Historical BackgroundThe McCulloch v. Maryland decision in 1819 fanned the flames of controversy over States' rights and national supremacy. By 1824, Chief Justice John Marshall had reached th…

Meriwether Lewis

Meriwether Lewis was chosen, with William Clark, to lead an American overland expedition to the Pacific Ocean in 1804. Lewis was a former soldier and personal secretary to President Thomas Jefferson, …

Lewis Carroll

Name at birth: Charles Lutwidge DodgsonLewis Carroll was the church deacon and mathematician who wrote the famous fantasy books Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (published in 1865) and its sequel, Thr…

Jerry Lewis

Name at birth: Joseph LevitchSlapstick and funny-face specialist Jerry Lewis was one of the top movie comedians of the 1950s and 1960s. Jerry Lewis got his start with singer Dean Martin as Martin & L…

Carl Lewis

Carl LewisBorn: July 1, 1961Track & Field won 9 Olympic gold medals; 4 in 1984 (100m, 200m, 4x100m, LJ), 2 in ‘88 (100m, LJ), 2 in ‘92 (4x100m, LJ) and 1 in ‘96 (LJ); …

Sinclair Lewis

Name at birth: Harry Sinclair LewisNovelist Sinclair Lewis was the first writer from the United States to win the Nobel Prize in literature, on the strength of his novels satirizing the hypocrisy and …