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Ponge, Francis

(Encyclopedia) Ponge, Francis fräNsēs´ pôNzh [key], 1899–1988, French essayist and poet. A controversial figure, he was opposed to emotional and symbolic poetic methods. His method was to observe thing...


(Encyclopedia) Ping-Pong: see table tennis .

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, emperor of Austria: see Francis II , Holy Roman emperor.

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1708–65, Holy Roman emperor (1745–65), duke of Lorraine (1729–37) as Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany (1737–65), husband of Archduchess Maria Theresa . He succeed...

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor ...

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1777–1830, king of the Two Sicilies (1825–30), son and successor of Ferdinand I. He continued the ruthless and reactionary policy of his father, and his court was notorious for w...


(Encyclopedia) Francis, 1936–, pope (2013–), an Argentinian (b. Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants) named Jorge Mario Bergoglio; successor of Benedict XVI . Francis, the first non-European to assume...


(Encyclopedia) Francis, 1554–84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici . Although ill-shapen, pockmarked, and endowed with ...

Saint Francis

(Encyclopedia) Saint Francis, river, Canada: see Saint François .

Francis II

(Encyclopedia) Francis II, 1544–60, king of France (1559–60), son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. He married (1558) Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), and during his brief reign the government ...