Name at birth: Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre
Influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Robespierre went from being active in the National Assembly of France to being a leader of the Jacobins during the French Revolution. Called "The Incorruptible" because of his self-described moral virtue, he was a member of the Committee of Public Safety and the de facto leader of the country between 1793 and 1794. Robespierre's extreme and violent response to opposition was dubbed The Reign of Terror, and his ruthlessness eventually led to his downfall. On July 27, 1794 he was arrested and tried, then guillotined the next day.