New Brunswick: Geography

One of the Maritime Provinces, New Brunswick is bounded on the N by Chaleur Bay and Quebec prov.; on the E by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Northumberland Strait (across which it is connected by bridge with Prince Edward Island), and Nova Scotia; on the S by the Bay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy Bay; and on the W by Maine. Its irregular coastline provides excellent facilities for fishing and shipping enterprises. Rivers cross the rolling countryside; they were the first means of transportation and are still important arteries of travel and commerce. The largest river, the St. John, crosses the province from northwest to southeast; the Miramichi River flows northeasterly and drains the central lowlands. Most of the roads parallel the rivers.

New Brunswick's forests are still filled with bear, deer, and moose, and the rivers abound in trout and salmon, although pollution from paper mills has reduced the salmon population. Summer residences, many owned by Americans, are concentrated in the south around Passamaquoddy Bay. Natural attractions include the Grand Falls on the upper reaches of the St. John as well as the spectacular Fundy tides—the highest in the world, sometimes surging to over 50 ft (15 m). The tides in turn cause the Reversing Falls at St. John and the Bore, a twice-daily wave moving up the Petitcodiac River. They have also sculpted the Hopewell Rocks, another tourist attraction.

Fredericton is the capital and the third largest city. The largest city is Saint John, the second largest Moncton. About half the population lives in urban areas.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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