- Myanmar Main Page
- WWII Leads to Independence
- The Military Maintains a Tight Grip on Myanmar
- The Junta Crack Down on Democracy
- Moving Toward a Modern Nation
- Military Crackdowns Receive World Criticism
- Suu Kyi Freed Shortly After Elections
- Dramatic Shift Away from Authoritarian Rule Brings Diplomatic Opportunities
- Opposition Dominates 2012 Elections
- Small Steps Toward Democratization
- Aung San Suu Kyi's Opposition Party Wins 2015 Landmark Election
More Facts & Figures
National name: Pyidaungsu Myanmar Naingngandau
Languages: Burmese, minority languages
Ethnicity/race: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%
Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Islam 4%, Animist 1%, other 2%
Literacy rate: 92.7% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $111.1 billion; per capita $1,700. Real growth rate: 6.8%. Inflation: 5.7%. Unemployment: 5.2%. Arable land: 15.94%. Agriculture: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products. Labor force: 34.31 million; agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001). Industries: agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement; natural gas. Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $9.043 billion (2013); note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh: clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice. Imports: $10.11 billion (2013 est.); note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India: fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products. Major trading partners: Thailand, India, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 556,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 5.44 million (2012). Broadcast media: government controls all domestic broadcast media; 2 state-controlled TV stations with 1 of the stations controlled by the armed forces; 2 pay-TV stations are joint state-private ventures; access to satellite TV is limited; 1 state-controlled domestic radio station and 9 FM stations that are joint state-private ventures; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in parts of Burma; the Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia (RFA), BBC Burmese service, the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), and Radio Australia use shortwave to broadcast in Burma; VOA, RFA, and DVB produce daily TV news programs that are transmitted by satellite to audiences in Burma. Internet hosts: 1,055; note: as of Sept. 2000, Internet connections were legal only for the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2012). Internet users: 110,000 (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 5,031 km (2008). Highways: total: 34,377 km; (2010 est.). Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels. Ports and harbors: Moulmein, Sittwe, Rangoon. Airports: 64 (2013).
International disputes: over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; the Naf River on the border with Bangladesh serves as a smuggling and illegal transit route; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border with Bangladesh in 2010; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; fencing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants; over 90,000 mostly Karen refugees and asylum seekers fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma were living in remote camps in Thailand near the border as of year-end 2013.