Turkey | Facts & Information

Updated September 9, 2022 | Infoplease Staff
Infoplease has everything you need to know about Turkey. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about Turkey's geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags.

Facts & Figures

  • President: Recep Tayyip Erdogan (2014)

    Prime Minister: Ahmet Davutoglu (2014)

    Land area: 297,591 sq mi (770,761 sq km); total area: 301,382 sq mi (780,580 sq km)

    Population (July 2014 est.): 81,619,392 (growth rate: 1.12%); birth rate: 16.86/1000; infant mortality rate: 21.43/1000; life expectancy: 73.29

    Capital (2011 est.): Ankara, 4.194 million

    Largest cities: Istanbul, 11.253 million; Izmir, 2.927 million; Bursa, 1.713 million; Adana, 1.468 million, Gaziantep 1.198 million.

    Monetary unit: Turkish lira (YTL)

    Republic of Turkey

    National name: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

    Current government officials

    Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

    Ethnicity/race: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)

    Religions: Islam (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

    Literacy rate: 94.1% (2011 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $1.167 trillion; per capita $15,300. Real growth rate: 3.8%. Inflation: 7.6%. Unemployment: 9.3%. Arable land: 26.21%. Agriculture: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock. Labor force: 27.91 million (2013 est.); note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad; agriculture 25.5%, industry 26.2%, services 48.4% (2010). Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper. Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower. Exports: $167.6 billion (2013 est.): apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment. Imports: $242.9 billion (2013 est.): machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment. Major trading partners: Germany, UK, Russia, U.S., Italy, France, Russia, China, Iraq, Iran, UAE (2012).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 13.86 million (2012); mobile cellular: 67.68 million (2012). Broadcast media: national public broadcaster Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately-owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions are obtainable; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7.093 million (2012). Internet users: 27.233 million (2009).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 12,008 km (2012). Highways: total: 385,748 km; paved: 352,268 km; unpaved: 33,486 km (2012). Waterways: about 1,200 km (2010). Ports and harbors: .Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca Airports: 98 (2013).

    International disputes: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley.

    Major sources and definitions