Saudi Arabia | Facts & Information

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Facts & Figures

  • Sovereign: King Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (2015)

    Total/Land area: 829,999 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km)

    Population (2022 est.): 35,354,380 (growth rate: 1.63%); birth rate: 14.22/1000; infant mortality rate: 12.27/1000; life expectancy: 76.65

    Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Riyadh, 7.538 million

    Other large cities: Jeddah, 4.781 million; Makkah (Mecca), 2.115 million; Medina, 1.545 million; Ad Dammam, 1.305 million; Hufuf-Mubarraz, 860,000 million

    Monetary unit: Riyal

    National name: Al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiya as-Sa'udiya

    Current government officials

    Language: Arabic

    Ethnicity/race: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

    Religion: Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-12% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2020 est.)

    Literacy rate: 87.6% (2020 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $1,543,240,000,000; per capita $44,300. Real growth rate: -.9%. Inflation: -2%. Unemployment: 6% (data are for total population; unemployment among Saudi nationals is more than double (2017)). Arable land: 1.5%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk. Labor force: 13.8 million; note: comprised of 3.1 million Saudis and 10.7 million non-Saudis (2017); agriculture 6.7%, industry 21.4%, services 71.9% (2005 est.). Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals; ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics; metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper. Exports: $184.11 billion (2020 est.): petroleum and petroleum products 90%. Major trading partners (exports): China 20%, India 11%, Japan 11%, South Korea 9%, United States 5% (2019).

    Imports: $179.8 billion (2020 est.): machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles. Major trading partners (imports): China 18%, United Arab Emirates 12%, United States 9%, Germany 5% (2019).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 5,749,058 (2020 est.); mobile cellular: 43,215,439 (2020 est.). Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998). Radios: 6.25 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 117 (2007). Televisions: 5.1 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 145,941 (2012). Internet users: 34,117,590 (2020).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 5,410 km (2016). Highways: total: 221,372 km; paved: 47,529 km; unpaved: 173,843 km (2006). Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jeddah, Yanbu al Bahr. Airports: 214 (2021).

    International disputes:Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir.

    Major sources and definitions

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