Mongolia | Facts & Information

Updated September 9, 2022 | Infoplease Staff
Infoplease has everything you need to know about Mongolia. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about Mongolia's geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags.

Facts & Figures

  • President: Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (2009)

    Prime Minister: Chimediin Saikhanbileg (2014)

    Total area: 604,247 sq mi (1,565,000 sq km)

    Population (2014 est.): 2,953,190 (growth rate: 1.37%); birth rate: 20.88/1000; infant mortality rate: 23.15/1000; life expectancy: 68.98

    Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Ulaan Baatar, 1.184 million

    Monetary unit: Tugrik

    National name: Mongol Uls

    Current government officials

    Languages: Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)

    Ethnicity/race: Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)

    Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)

    National Holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, July 11

    Literacy rate: 97.4% (2011 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $17.03 billion; per capita $5,900. Real growth rate: 11.8%. Inflation: 8.2%. Unemployment: 9%. Arable land: 0.39%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses. Labor force: 1.037 million; agriculture 33%, industry 10.6%, services 56.4%, (2011). Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate. Exports: $4.294 billion (2013 est.): copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals. Imports: $5.696 (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea. Major trading partners: China, Canada, U.S., Russia, South Korea, Japan (2012).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 176,700 (2012); mobile cellular: 3.375 million (2012). Broadcast media: following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20,084 (2012). Internet users: 330,000 (2008).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 1,908 km (2010). Roadways: total: 49,249 km; paved: 4,800 km; unpaved: 44,449 km (2013). Ports and harbors: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010). Airports: 44 (2013).

    International disputes: none.

    Major sources and definitions

See also: