The Journals of Lewis & Clark: April 20, 1806

by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
April 19, 1806
April 21, 1806

April 20, 1806

Sunday April 20th 1806. some frost this morning. The Enesher an Skillutes are much better clad than they were last fall, there men have generally legings mockersons and large robes; many of them wear shirts of the same form with those of the Shoshone Chopunnish &c highly ornamented with porcupine quills. the dress of their women differs very little from those of the great rapids and above. their children frequently wear robes of the large grey squirrel skins, those of the men and women are principally deer skins, some wolf, elk, bighorn and buffaloe; the latter they procure from the nations who sometimes visit the Missouri. indeed a considerable poportion of their wearing apparel is purchased from their neighbours to the N. W. in exchange for pounded fish copper and beads. at present the principal village of the Eneshur is below the falls on the N. side of the river. one other village is above the falls on the S. side and another a few miles above on the N. side. the first consists of 19, the 2cd of 11, and the 3rd of 5 lodges. their houses like those of the Skillutes have their floors on the surface of the ground, but are formed of sticks and covered with mats and straw. they are large and contain usually several families each for fuel they use straw, small willows and the southern wood. they use the silk grass in manufacturing their fishing nets and bags, the bear grass and cedar bark are employed in forming a variety of articles. they are poor, dirty, proud, haughty, inhospitable, parsimonious and faithless in every rispect, nothing but our numbers I beleive prevents their attempting to murder us at this moment.

This morning I was informed that the natives had pilfered six tommahawks and a knife from the party in the course of the last night. I spoke to the cheif on this subject. he appeared angry with his people and addressed them but the property was not restored. one horse which I had purchased and paid for yesterday and which could not be found when I ordered the horses into close confinement yesterday I was now informed had been gambled away by the rascal who had sold it to me and had been taken away by a man of another nation. I therefore took the goods back from this fellow. I purchased a gun from the cheif for which I gave him 2 Elkskins. in the course of the day I obtained two other indifferent horses for which I gave an extravigant price. I found that I should get no more horses and therefore resolved to proceed tomorrow morning with those which I had and to convey the baggage in two small canoes that the horses could not carry. for this purpose I had a load made up for seven horses, the eighth Bratton was compelled to ride as he was yet unable to walk. I barted my Elkskins old irons and 2 canoes for beads. one of the canoes for which they would give us but little I had cut up for fuel. These people have yet a large quantity of dryed fish on hand yet they will not let us have any but for an exorbitant price. we purchased two dogs and some shappellel from them. I had the horses graized untill evening and then picquited and bubbled within the limits of our camp. I ordered the indians from our camp this evening and informed them that if I caught them attempting to perloin any article from us I would beat them severely. they went off in reather a bad humour and I directed the party to examine their arms and be on their guard. they stole two spoons from us in the course of the day. The Scaddals, Squan-nan-os, Shan-wah-purrs and Shallattas reside to the N. W. of these people, depend on hunting deer and Elk and trade with these people for ther pounded fish.

April 20th 1806

This morning very Cold hills covered with Snow. I Showed the nativs what I had to give for their horses and attempted to purchase them. they informed me that they would not Sell any horses to me, that their horses were at a long ways off and they would not trade them. my offer was a blue robe, Callico Shirt, a handkerchef, 5 parcels of paint a Knife, a wampom moon 4 braces of ribin, a pice of Brass and about 6 braces of yellow heeds; and to that amount for what I had I also offered my large blue blanket for one, my Coat Sword & Plume none of which Seem to entice those people to give horses if they had any. they Set in their huts which is of mats Supported on poles without fire. at night when they wish a light they burn dry Straw & Some fiew Small dry willows. they Speak defferent from those below, have but little to eate. Some roots & Dryed fish is to be found in their houses. I am half frozed at this inhospitable Village which is moved from its position above the falls to one below and Contains 19 large houses, a village is also established on the other Side imedeately above the falls. all the natives who was established above the Falls for Some distance has removed Those people are much better dressed than they were at the time we went down the river. They have all new, Deer, Elk, Ibex Goat & wolf Skin robes, their Children also the large squirel Skin robes, maney of them have Legins and mockersons, all of which they precure of the Indians at a distance in exchange for their pounded fish & Beeds, they also purchase Silk grass, of which they make their nets & Sales for takeing fish they also purchase Bear grass and maney other things for their fish. those people gave me roots and berries prepared in different ways for which I gave some Small articles in return.-Great numbers of Skiming knets on their houses. Those people are Pore and Kind durty & indolt. They ware their hair loose flowing the men cut in the foward which the Skilloots do not &c. &c.

I could not precure a Single horse of those people, dureing this day at any price, they offered me 2 for 2 kittles of which we Could not spear. I used every artifice decent & even false Statements to enduce those pore devils to Sell me horses. in the evening two different men offered to Sell me three horses which they informed me was a little distance off and they would bring them imediately. those two persons as I found went imediately off up the river to their tribe without any intention to find or Sell their horses. a little before Sunset 3 men arived from Some distance above and informed me that they Came to See me. at Sunset finding no probability of Capt Lewis arival, packed up the articles and took them into the lodge in which I lay last night. Great numbers of those people geathered around me to Smoke. I gave them 2 pipes and lay down in the back part of the house with Sgt. P. & the men with our arms in a Situation as to be ready in case of any alarm. those pore people appear entirely harmless- I purchased a dog and Some wood with a little pounded fish and Chappaless. made a fire on the rocks and Cooked the dogs on which the men breckfast & Dined. wind hard all day cold from N W.

Sunday 20th April 1806

a very cold morning the western mountains Covered with Snow I Shewed the Eneshers the articles I had to give for their horses. they without hezitation informed me that they would not Sell me any for the articles I had, if I would give them Kitties they would let me have horses, and not without. that their horses were at a long ways off in the planes and they would not Send for them &c. my offer was a blue robe, a Calleco Shirt, a Silk handkerchief, 5 parcels of paint, a knife, a Wampom moon, 8 yards of ribon, Several pieces of Brass, a mockerson awl and 6 braces of yellow beeds; and to that amount for each horse which is more than double what we gave either the Sohsohne or first flat heads we met with on Clarks river I also offered my large blue blanket, my Coat Sword & plume none of which Seamed to entice those people to Sell their horses. not with standing every exertion not a Single horse Could be precured of those people in the Course of the day. Those people are much better Clad than they were last fall, their men have generally legins mockersons and large robes. maney of them ware Shirts of the Same form of those of the Chopunnish and Shoshone highly ornimented with porcupine quills. the dress of their winen differs verry little from those above the great rapids. their Children have Small robes of the Squirel Skins. those of the men & women are principally deer, Some elk, wolf, Ibix & buffalow which they precure from distant nations who purchase their Pounded fish in exchange for those robes & Beeds. The principal village of the Enesher nation is imedeately below the falls on the N. Side. one other village of the Same nation above the falls on the opposit Side and one other a few miles above on the North Side.- The Houses of those people like the Skillutes have the flores of their Summer dwelling on the Surface of the earth in Sted of those Sellers in which they resided when we passed them last fall. those houses are Covered with mats and Straw are large and Contain Several families each. I counted 19 at this Village & 11 on the opposit Side. those people are pore durty haughty. they burn Straw and Small willows. have but little to eate and deer with what they have. they precure the Silk grass of which they make their nets, the bear grass for makeing their mats and Several other necessary of the Indians of the following nations who trade with them as also the Skillutes for their pounded fish. Viz. Skad-dats, Squan-nun-os, Shan-wappoms, Shall-lat-tos, who reside to the north and Several bands who reside on the Columbia above.- I precured a Sketch of the Columbia and its branches of those people in which they made the river which falls into the Columbia imediately above the falls on the South Side to branch out into 3 branches one of which they make head in Mt.jefferson, one in mount Hood and the other in the S W. range of Mountains and does not water that extensive Country we have heretofore Calculated on. a great portion of that extensive tract of Country to the S. and S. W. of the Columbia and Lewis's river and between the Same and the waters of Callifornia must be watered by the Multnomah river.- See Sketch in the latter part of this book (No. 5). Those people are great jokies and deciptfull in trade.

at Sunset finding that Capt Lewis would not arrive this evening as I expected, I packed up all the articles which I had exposed, at a Situation I had pitched on to Encamp, and at which place we had bought as maney fishing poles as made a fire to Cook a dog which I had purchased for the men to eate, and returned to the lodge which I had Slept in last night. great number gathered around me to Smoke, I gave them two pipes, and then lay my self down with the men to Sleep, haveing our merchendize under our heads and guns &c in our arms, as we always have in Similar Situations