The Journals of Lewis & Clark: Clark, March 11, 1806
Clark, March 11, 1806
Tuesday March 11th 1806
Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a Small Canoe loaded with fish which he had obtained from the Cath-lah-mah's for a very Small part of the articles he had taken with him. the wind had prevented his going to the fishery on the opposit Side of the river above the Waukiecum's, and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as early as he otherwise would have been back. The dogs of the Cathlahmah's had bitten the throng assunder which confined his canoe and she had gorn adrift. he borrowed a Canoe from the Indians in which he has returned. he found his canoe on the way and Secured her, untill we return the Indians their Canoe- Sent Sergt. Gass and a party in Serch of one of our Canoes which was reported to have been lost from a hunting party of Shields R. Field & Frazier when they were last out on the opposit Side of the Netul. they returned and reported that they Could not find the Canoe which had broken the Cord with which it was attached, and was caried off by the tide. Drewyer Jo. Field & Frazier Set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to hunt as they had been directed last evening. we once more live in Clover; Anchovies fresh Sturgeon and Wappatoe. the latter Sergt. Pryor had also procured a fiew and brought with him. The Deer of this Coust differ from the Common Deer, fallow Deer or Mule Deer as has beformentiond.
The Mule Deer we have never found except in rough Country; they prefer the Open Grounds and are Seldom found in the wood lands near the river; when they are met with in the wood lands or river bottoms and pursued, they imediately run to the hills or open country as the Elk do, the Contrary happens with the common Deer. there are Several differences between the mule and common deer as well as in form as in habits. they are fully a third larger in general, and the male is particularly large; think there is Somewhat greater disparity of Size between the Male and the female of this Species than there is between the male and female fallow Deer; I am Convinced I have Seen a Buck of this Species twice the volume a Buck of the Common Deer. the Ears are peculiarly large, I measured those of a large Buck which I found to be eleven inches long and 31/2 in width at the widest part; they are not so delicately formed, their hair in winter is thicker longer and of a much darker grey, in Summer the hair is Still coarser longer and of a paler red, more like that of the Elk; in winter they also have a Considerable quantity of very fine wool intermixed with the hair and lying next to the Skin as the Antelope has. the long hair which grows on the outer Side of the first joint of the hind legs, and which in the Common Deer do not usially occupy more than 2 inches in them occupy from 6 to 8; their horns also differ, those in the Common deer consist of two main beams gradually deminishing as the points proceed from it, with the mule deer the horns consist of two beams which at the distance of 4 or 6 inches from the head divide themselves into two equal branches which again either divide into two other equal branches or terminate in a Smaller, and two equal ones; haveing either 2, 4 or 6 points on a beam; the horn is not so rough about the base as the common deer, and are invariably of a much darker Colour. the most Strikeing difference of all, is the white rump and tail. from the root of the tail as a center there is a circular Spot perfectly white of about 31/2 inches radius, which occupy a part of the rump and the extremities of buttocks and joins the white of the belley underneath; the tail which is usially from 8 to 9 inches long for the first 4 or 5 inches from its upper extremity is covered with Short white hairs, much Shorter indeed than those hairs of the body; from hence for about one inch further, the hair is Still white but gradually becoms longer; the tail then termonates in a tissue of Black hair of about 3 inches long. from this black hair of the tail they have obtained among the French engages the appelation of the black tailed Deer, but this I conceive by no means Characteristic of the Animal as much the larger portion of the tail is white. the Ears and the tail of this Animale when Compared with those of the Common Deer, So well Comported with those of the Mule when compared with the Horse, that we have by way of distinction adapted the appellation of the mule Deer which I think much more appropriate. on the inner corner of each eye there is a drane (like the Elk) or large recepticle which Seams to Answer as a drane to the eye which givs it the appearance of weeping, this in the Common Deer of the Atlantic States is scercely proceptable but becoms more Conspicious in the fallow Deer, and Still more So in the Elk; this recepticle in the Elk is larger than any of the Pecora order with which I am acquainted.
I have Some reasons to believe that the Calumet Eagle is Sometimes found on this Side of the Rocky mountains from the information of the Indians in whose possession I have Seen their plumage. those are the Same with those of the Missouri, and are the most butifull of all the family of the Eagle of America it's colours are black and white with which it is butifully varigated. the feathers of the tail which is so highly prized by the Indians is composed of twelve broad feathers of equal length those are white except about two inches at the extremity which is of a jut black. their wings have each a large circular white Spot in the middle when extended. the body is variously marked with white and black. the form is much that of the Common bald Eagle, but they are reather Smaller and much more fleet. this Eagle is feared by all carnivarous birds, and on his approach all leave the carcase instantly on which they were feeding. it breads in the inaccessable parts of the Mountains where it Spends the Summer, and decends to the plains and low country in the fall and winter when it is usially Sought and taken by the nativs. two tails of this bird is esteemed by Mandans, Minnetares, Ricaras, &c. as the full value of a good horse, or Gun and accoutrements. with the Osage & Kanzas and those nations enhabiting Countrys where this bird is more rare, the price is even double of that mentioned. with these feathers the nativs deckerate the Stems of their Sacred pipes or Calumets; whence the name of Calumet Eagle, which has Generally obtained among the Engages. The Ricaras have domesticated this bird in many instances for the purpose of obtaining its plumage. the nativs in every part of the Continent who can precure those feathers attach them to their own hair and the mains and tail of their favorite horses by way of orniment. they also deckerate their own caps or bonnets with those feathers. The Leather winged bat is found &c.