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Spence, Thomas

(Encyclopedia) Spence, Thomas, 1750–1814, English agrarian socialist. A forerunner of the single taxers (see single tax), he devised a scheme by which the parishes would assume ownership of the land…

Spencer, Anna Garlin

(Encyclopedia) Spencer, Anna Garlin, 1851–1931, American educator, feminist, and Unitarian minister, b. Attleboro, Mass. She married the Rev. William H. Spencer in 1878. She was a leader in the woman…

Spencer, George John Spencer, 2d Earl

(Encyclopedia) Spencer, George John Spencer, 2d Earl, 1758–1834, British public official. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1780 but in 1783 inherited the earldom. In 1794, William Pitt…

Spencer, Herbert

(Encyclopedia) Spencer, Herbert, 1820–1903, English philosopher, b. Derby. In 1848 he moved to London, where he was an editor at The Economist and wrote his first major book, Social Statics (1851),…

Spencer, Sir Stanley

(Encyclopedia) Spencer, Sir Stanley, 1891–1959, English painter. In his landscapes and his often highly erotic portraits and religious-allegorical scenes, Spencer's paintings express a highly…

Spencer

(Encyclopedia) Spencer, city (1990 pop. 11,066), seat of Clay co., NW Iowa, on the Little Sioux River; inc. 1880. The city lies in a fertile farm area. Beef is processed, and Spencer's…

Spencer Gulf

(Encyclopedia) Spencer Gulf, inlet of the Indian Ocean, 200 mi (322 km) long and 80 mi (129 km) wide, SE South Australia state, Australia, between Eyre and Yorke peninsulas. The gulf is the major…

Spender, Sir Stephen

(Encyclopedia) Spender, Sir Stephen, 1909–95, English poet and critic, b. London. His early poetry—like that of W. H. Auden, C. Day Lewis, and Louis MacNeice, with whom he became associated at Oxford…

Spener, Philipp Jakob

(Encyclopedia) Spener, Philipp Jakob f´lp yä´kôp shp´nr, 1635–1705, German theologian, founder of Pietism. He was pastor of the Lutheran church at Frankfurt in 1670 when, to counteract the barren…

Spengler, Oswald

(Encyclopedia) Spengler, Oswald spng´glr, Ger. ôs´vält shpng´glr, 1880–1936, German historian and philosopher. His studies covered many fields, among them mathematics, science, philosophy,…