Henry Morton Stanley
Name at birth: John Rowlands
Born into poverty, John Rowlands left Wales and in 1858 arrived in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he took the name Henry Stanley. He fought as a Confederate in the U.S. Civil War, was captured, then fought on the Union side. As a journalist, he was dispatched from New York to Asia Minor and to the American West, and then assigned to Africa to find the missing explorer David Livingstone. Stanley found Livingstone, and is famous for having said "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" upon meeting him. Stanley's subsequent explorations of Africa and his many books and articles made him an international celebrity. Although he is considered by many to be one of the 19th century's greatest explorers, Stanley has also been accused of being complicit in King Leopold II's murderous pillage of the Congo.