The Revolutionary War
Conflicts increase between colonists and Britain on western frontier because of royal edict limiting western expansion (1763) and regulation of colonial trade and increased taxation of colonies (Writs of Assistance allow search for illegal shipments, 1761; Sugar Act, 1764; Currency Act, 1764; Stamp Act, 1765; Quartering Act, 1765; Duty Act, 1767). Boston Massacre (1770). Lord North attempts conciliation (1770). Boston Tea Party (1773), followed by punitive measures passed by Parliament—the “Intolerable Acts.”
First Continental Congress (1774) sends “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” to King George III, urges colonies to form Continental Association. Paul Revere's ride and Lexington and Concord battle between Massachusetts Minutemen and British (1775).
Second Continental Congress (1775), while sending “olive branch” to the king, begins to raise army, appoints Washington commander-in-chief, and seeks alliance with France. Some colonial legislatures urge their delegates to vote for independence. Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776).
Major Battles of the Revolutionary War: Long Island: Howe defeats Putnam's division of Washington's Army in Brooklyn Heights, but Americans escape across East River (1776). Trenton and Princeton: Washington defeats Hessians at Trenton, British at Princeton. Winters at Morristown (1776–1777). Howe winters in Philadelphia; Washington at Valley Forge (1777–1778). Burgoyne surrenders British army to General Gates at Saratoga (1777).
France recognizes American independence (1778). The War moves south: Savannah captured by British (1778); Charleston occupied (1780); Americans fight successful guerrilla actions under Marion, Pickens, and Sumter. In the West, George Rogers Clark attacks Forts Kaskaskia and Vincennes (1778–1779), defeating British in the region. Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown, Virginia (Oct. 19, 1781). By 1782, Britain is eager for peace because of conflicts with European nations. Peace of Paris (1783): Britain recognizes American independence.