In recent years, professional bicycle racing has been marred by revelations of the use of performance-enhancing drugs. Several favorites were barred from the 2006 Tour de France as a result of doping charges, and the winner that year, American Floyd Landis, tested positive for high testosterone levels (and presumed testosterone use) and was ultimately stripped of the title. In addition, the long-dominant Lance Armstrong was accused, after his retirement, of doping by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency and others. A 2012 report on professional bicycle racing the agency revealed the most egregious doping scandal and the most complex conspiracy to date in any competitive sport. It led the International Cycling Union, which governs the sport, to strip Armstrong (who asserted his innocence until 2013) of his Tour de France titles and to bar him for life from the sport.
See T. Hamilton, The Secret Race (with D. Coyle, 2012).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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