During his tenure Hammarskjöld greatly extended the influence of the United Nations as well as the prestige of the secretary-general. A quiet, tactful, and highly active diplomat, he personally led missions to Beijing (1955), the Middle East (1956, 1958), and elsewhere to lessen tensions or to arrange peace settlements. Under his guidance a UN emergency force was established to help maintain order in the Middle East after the 1956 Suez crisis, and UN observation forces were sent to Laos and Lebanon. He initiated and directed (1960–61) the United Nation's vigorous role in Congo (Kinshasa) civil war, and was flying to Congolese negotiations when his plane crashed in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) on Sept. 18, 1961. Suspicions that crash was the result of an attack or threat associated with Katangan separatists or their supporters remain. He was succeeded as secretary-general by U Thant. Hammarskjöld was posthumously awarded the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize.
See his book of personal reflections, Markings (1964), and his Public Papers, 1953–1956, ed. by A. W. Cordier and W. Foote (1972); biographies by B. Urquhart (1972) and R. Lipsey (2013).
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