fire fighting: Special Equipment and Techniques
Special Equipment and Techniques
Buildings are protected against fire most effectively by protective sprinkler systems. In most sprinkler systems, water circulates through overhead pipes whose outlets are normally closed; at high temperatures the outlets open, spraying water on the fire. Most large buildings also provide water for fire fighting through a standpipe system with hose connections on each floor. Forest and brush fires are fought by making a firebreak and by covering the fire with extinguishing substances. A narrow strip is cut and cleared in front of the fire down to mineral soil. Embers flying into the strip are put out, while water and other fire-extinguishing substances are spread from land-based vehicles or are dropped on the fire from the air. Oil-field fires demand multiple approaches: water streams, fogs, foams, and explosives may all be used simultaneously to quench a fire and prevent its reignition.
Sections in this article:
- History of Fire Fighting
- Special Equipment and Techniques
- Characteristics of Extinguishing Substances
- Extinguishing Fires
- Fire-Fighting Apparatus
- Fire-Fighting Personnel
- Fire-Fighting Strategy
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