Faraday's experiments yielded some of the most significant principles and inventions in scientific history. He developed the first dynamo (in the form of a copper disk rotated between the poles of a permanent magnet), the precursor of modern dynamos and generators. From his discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831; also independently discovered by the American Joseph Henry ) stemmed a vast development of electrical machinery for industry. In 1825 he discovered the compound benzene . In addition to other contributions he did research on electrolysis , formulating Faraday's law . He also laid the foundations of the classical electromagnetic field theory, later fully developed by J. C. Maxwell . Some of his works were collected as Experimental Researches in Electricity (3 vol., 1839–55) and Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics (1859).
See his diary (ed. by T. Martin, 7 vol., 1932–36); his correspondence (ed. by L. P. Williams, 2 vol., 1971); biographies by T. Martin (1934), L. P. Williams (1965), G. Cantor (1991), and J. Hamilton (2005); studies by D. Gooding and F. A. James, ed. (1986) and N. Forbes and B. Mahon (2014).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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