The concept of color was proposed by American physicist Oscar Greenberg and independently by Japanese physicist Yoichiro Nambu in 1964. The theory was confirmed in 1979 when quarks were shown to emit gluons during studies of high-energy particle collisions at the German national laboratory in Hamburg. QCD is nearly identical in mathematical structure to quantum electrodynamics (QED) and to the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions advanced by American physicist Steven Weinberg and Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam .
See F. J. Yndurain, Quantum Chromodynamics: An Introduction to the Theory of Quarks and Gluons (1983); G. Altarelli, The Development of Perturbative QCD (1994); W. Greiner and A. Schafer, Quantum Chromodynamics (1994).
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