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compression

compression, external stress applied to an object or substance, tending to cause a decrease in volume (see pressure ). Gases can be compressed easily, solids and liquids to a very small degree if at all. Water, for example, is practically incompressible, thus making it especially useful for hydraulic machines . According to the kinetic-molecular theory of gases , when the molecules of a gas are brought close enough together by compression, the gas (under certain conditions of temperature) undergoes liquefaction . This principle is applied commercially to several gases, including liquid oxygen and the so-called bottled gas (a mixture of hydrocarbons) used as a fuel. Boyle's law deals with the decrease in the volume of a gas in relation to the increase of pressure upon it (see gas laws ). The ability or the degree to which an internal-combustion engine reduces the volume of its fuel mixture preparatory to firing is called its compression. Also, a region of high pressure in a fluid is called a compression thus sound waves are said to propagate at compressions and rarefactions (regions of low pressure) of their medium, such as air.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.