Paul IV, 1476–1559, pope (1555–59), a Neapolitan named Gian Pietro Carafa; successor of Marcellus II. First superior of the Theatines (see Cajetan, Saint ), he was sternly ascetic. A leading reformer, he organized the Inquisition set up by Paul III . As pope, he labored to purify the clergy and abolish corruption and worldliness from the papal curia, thus promoting reform (see Counter Reformation ). He repudiated the settlement between Mary I of England and Reginald Cardinal Pole , and he later declared Elizabeth I illegitimate and unfit to be queen. He was succeeded by Pius IV .
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