Nicholas V, 1397–1455, pope (1447–55), an Italian named Tommaso Parentucelli, b. probably Sarzana, Liguria; successor of Eugene IV. From Eugene IV he inherited the antipapal enactments of the Council of Basel (see Basel, Council of). By a conciliatory policy Nicholas gained the Concordat of Vienna (1448) with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. It undid much of the damage to papal authority, and the following year the council and the antipope, Felix V, submitted to Nicholas. In 1450 a splendid jubilee marked the schism's end. To further church reform, the pope sent (1450) Nicholas of Cusa to Germany. Pope Nicholas was renowned for learning and piety; he established the papacy as a patron of the humanities and was a founder of the Vatican Library. Lorenzo Valla benefited from his generosity. A plot on his life and the fall (1453) of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks clouded his last days. He was succeeded by Calixtus III.
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