performancesin theaters to which they charged admission, attracting attention and skepticism. Since spiritualist mediums were one of the few professional groups in which women outnumbered men, some clergy attacked them and other female mediums. Horace Greeley and Robert Owen publically defended their claims. In 1888, Margaret admitted that the effects were fraudulent, but later recanted her admission. In recent years, a number of feminist historians have lauded such efforts by women at spiritual leadership. See spiritism.
See A. Braude, Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women's Rights in 19th Century America (1989).
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