Galway, city (1991 pop. 50,853), seat of Co. Galway, W Republic of Ireland, on Galway Bay near the mouth of the Corrib River. Industries include tourism, food processing, flour milling, medical instruments, computers, motors, and the production of textiles and furniture. Agricultural produce, salmon, herring, marble, and woolen goods are exported. Galway was first incorporated by Richard II of England in the late 14th cent. In 1651 the town was taken by parliamentary forces, and in 1691 it was defeated by William III after the battle of Aughrim. For centuries Galway traded extensively with Spain, and Spanish influence is noticeable in the architecture. The Church of St. Nicholas dates from 1320. The Lynch Stone behind the church commemorates the execution by the lord mayor, James Lynch Fitzstephen, of his own son for murder. Claddagh, once noted for its unique customs, is a quarter of the town said to be the oldest fishing village in Ireland. Noteworthy is the edifice (1849) of University College, a constituent of the National Univ. of Ireland.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: British and Irish Political Geography