Brunswick or Braunschweig broun´shvīk [key], city (1994 pop. 256,270), Lower Saxony, central Germany, on the Oker River. It is an industrial and commercial center its major industry is metalworking. Other manufactures include pianos, electronic equipment, food products, and printed materials. Reputedly founded c.861 and chartered in the 12th cent., Braunschweig became (13th cent.) a prominent member of the Hanseatic League. In 1753 the residence of the dukes of Braunschweig was shifted there from Wolfenbüttel. In 1830 the duke was deposed and the city became a self-governing municipality. The city has a 12th-century Romanesque cathedral, which contains the tombs of Henry the Lion (d. 1195) and Emperor Otto IV (d. 1218) several Gothic churches and a famous fountain representing Till Eulenspiegel, the legendary prankster. The city is the site of a technical university (the oldest in Germany) and an art museum. The philosopher and dramatist Gotthold Lessing (1729–81) is buried in Brunswick.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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