Kolguyev kəlgo͞oˈyĭf [key], island, 1,350 sq mi (3,497 sq km), off NE European Russia, in the Barents Sea, E of the Kanin peninsula and 50 mi (80 km) from the mainland. It is a part of the Nenets Autonomous Area, Arkhangelsk region, and is inhabited mainly by Nenets (Samoyedes). It is a tundra region, and the Nenets engage in fishing, seal hunting, reindeer raising, and trapping. Burgino is the major settlement.

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