Nur-Sultan no͝or-so͝oltän´ [key], formerly Astanaästä´nä [key], city (2008 est. pop. 600,000), capital of Kazakhstan, in central Kazakhstan on the Ishim (Esil) River, within but independent of Aqmola prov. Agricultural machinery and consumer goods are manufactured; there are also leather-tanning, food-processing, clothing and footwear, and building-materials industries. Nur-Sultan is also an important rail junction. Several universities are there. The city was founded as a fortress in 1824. It was called (1832) Akmolinsk and was the capital from 1939 of the former Akmolinsk region until 1961, when it was renamed Tselinograd. As capital of the Virgin Lands Territory (Tselinny Kray) agricultural project, the city experienced a tremendous growth in population. After Kazakhstan gained its independence, the city and the region were renamed (1992) Aqmola (or Akmola). In 1994, Aqmola was designated as the future capital of Kazakhstan, and after the capital was moved there in 1997 the city was renamed (1998) Astana. The transfer of the capital sparked a construction boom, most dramatically on the left bank of the Ishim where the new government offices are located. Among the city's many new buildings are many government facilities, the pyramidal Palace of Peace (2006), and the central concert hall (2009). In 2019 the city was again renamed, to honor Kazakhstan's first president, Nursultan Nazarbayev.
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