The territory was never subject to the Burman kings, and after the establishment of British rule it was governed directly, not as part of British Burma. The territory was invaded (1945–47) by the Chinese, but a border agreement was signed between Myanmar and China in 1960. Antigovernment insurgents, active in Kachin State since Myanmar achieved independence in 1948, signed a cease-fire agreement with the government in 1993, but the truce with the largest Kachin militia broke down in 2010 and fighting resumed between the group and government forces.
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