Cyril, Saint (St. Cyril of Jerusalem)

Cyril, Saint (Saint Cyril of Jerusalem) sĭrˈəl [key], c. 315–386, bishop of Jerusalem (c. 350–386), Doctor of the Church. Ordained by his predecessor as bishop, St. Maximus, he was deposed in 357 by the Arian bishop Acacius of Caesarea (see Arianism) on charges of stealing church property, although the real reason was probably that he was teaching Nicene (see Nicaea, First Council of) and not Arian doctrine. The Council of Seleucia (359) deposed Acacius, and Cyril was returned to his see. Driven out again (360) by Emperor Constantius, he returned after Pope Julian ascended in 361, then was banished with other bishops in 367 by Emperor Valens, an Arian, and finally restored after the accession of Emperor Gratian (378). Cyril ultimately accepted the term homoousios [consubstantial, of the same substance] to define the Son's relationship to the Father; the term was affirmed by the First Council of Constantinople (381), which he attended. He probably instituted many of the liturgical forms for Holy Week, and he is known for Catechetical Lectures and Mystagogic Catecheses on the principles of Christianity. Feast: Mar. 18.

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