Mugabe, Robert Gabriel
By 2000 support for Mugabe had dropped dramatically in urban areas; a constitutional change to increase presidential power lost at the polls, and an opposition party later won nearly half the elected seats in parliament. He was reelected in 2002 in a vote marked by government intimidation of the opposition and charges of vote rigging. The 2008 president election was similarly marred, but opposition candidate Morgan Tsvangirai won a plurality of the vote and forced a runoff; Tsvangirai was subsequently driven to withdraw by violence against his supporters and threats against himself. Before the end of 2008, however, Mugabe was forced to agree to a power-sharing government with the opposition, which took office in 2009. His reelection in 2013 was again marked by charges of irregularites. In 2017 he fired Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in what was seen as an attempt to appoint his wife to the post. After the army then seized control of the capital and the parliament moved to impeach him, he resigned as President of Zimbabwe after 37 years in power and Mnangagwa succeeded him.
See S. Onslow and M. Plaut,
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