Charles XIII

Charles XIII, 1748–1818, king of Sweden (1809–18) and Norway (1814–18). He became regent for his nephew, Gustavus IV, after the assassination (1792) of his brother Gustavus III. He introduced some liberal policies, but these were abandoned at the end of his regency (1796). Called to the throne at the forced abdication (1809) of his nephew, Charles accepted a new constitution that limited the monarch's power, and he signed treaties with Denmark and France and a treaty ceding Finland to Russia. In 1810 he adopted the French marshal Bernadotte (later King Charles XIV) as his heir, and thereafter left all affairs in his hands.

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