Robert II (Robert Curthose), c.1054–1134, duke of Normandy (1087–1106); eldest son of King William I of England. Aided by King Philip I of France, he rebelled (1077) against his father. Father and son became reconciled, but Robert was later exiled. At William's death he inherited Normandy. England fell to his younger brother William II, with whom Robert was intermittently at war (1090–96) until Robert went (1096–1100) on the First Crusade. While he was away, William II died and Henry I, youngest son of William I, was crowned. Robert invaded (1101) England but was forced to recognize Henry. In Normandy, Robert's misgovernment prompted an invasion by Henry (1105), who defeated (1106) Robert at Tinchebrai, seized Normandy, and kept Robert a prisoner.
See biography by C. W. David (1920).
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