Jovian (Flavius Claudius Jovianus) jō´vēən [key], c.331–364, Roman emperor (363–64). The commander of the imperial guard under Julian the Apostate in his Persian campaign, Jovian was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers when Julian was killed. He made a humiliating peace with Shapur II of Persia. He returned Christianity to the privileged position it had enjoyed before Julian, and he restored his friend St. Athanasius to the episcopal see of Constantinople. After a reign of only eight months Jovian died and was succeeded by the joint emperors Valentinian I and Valens.
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