Cleomenes III, c.260–219 BC, king of Sparta (235–221 BC). He was probably the most energetic king Sparta ever had, a conscious imitator of Agis III (see under Agis). In his determined effort to restore the prestige of the city, he began (227 BC) a war against the Achaean League and was successful in many battles. At home his reforms were revolutionary: the kingship was made the supreme power, the ephorate was abolished, and the citizenship was widely extended, apparently to decrease the danger of discontent and to ally the people with the king. Cleomenes came to his downfall suddenly in 222 BC (or possibly 221 BC) when the Achaean League, allied with Antigonus III of Macedon, routed the Spartan army. Cleomenes fled to Egypt to the protection of his patron, Ptolemy III. Imprisoned by Ptolemy's successor, he escaped, but, failing in an attempt to stir up a revolt in Alexandria, he committed suicide.
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