Beethoven, Ludwig van:


See his letters, ed. by E. Anderson (3 vol., tr. 1961); H. C. R. Landon, ed., Beethoven: A Documentary Study (1970); biographies by A. F. Schindler (tr. 1966), A. W. Thayer (rev. and ed. by E. Forbes, 2 vol., 1967), W. Kinderman (1995), M. Solomon (rev. ed. 1998), L. Lockwood (2002), J. Suchet (2013), and J. Swafford (2014), and M. Cooper, Beethoven's Last Decade (1985); studies by D. F. Tovey (1945), D. Arnold and N. Fortune, ed. (1971), W. S. Newman (1971), M. Solomon (1988 and 2003), R. Kamien (1992), S. Burnham (1995), S. Rumph (2004), and N. Mathew (2013); C. Rosen, The Classical Style (expanded ed. 1997).

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