The drive was given impetus in World War I, when conservation policies limited liquor output. After the war national prohibition became the law, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution forbidding the manufacture, sale, import, or export of intoxicating liquors. In spite of the strict Volstead Act (1919) (see under Volstead, Andrew Joseph ), law enforcement proved to be very difficult. Smuggling on a large scale (see bootlegging ) could not be prevented, and the illicit manufacture of liquor sprang up with such rapidity that authorities were unable to suppress it. There followed a period of unparalleled illegal drinking (often of inferior and dangerous beverages) and lawbreaking on a large and organized scale. Meanwhile, speakeasies flourished and provided a new venue for sexually integrated social interaction. In 1933 the Twenty-first Amendment, repealing prohibition, was ratified. A number of states, counties, and other divisions maintained full or partial prohibition under the right of local option. By 1966 no statewide prohibition laws existed. Prohibition laws were passed in Finland, the Scandinavian countries, and most of Canada after World War I, but were repealed, partly because of serious consequences to the countries' commerce with wine-exporting nations.
See Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws (1931) by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission) C. Warburton, The Economic Results of Prohibition (1932, repr. 1969) H. Asbury, The Great Illusion (1950, repr. 1968) A. Sinclair, Prohibition, the Era of Excess (1962) J. H. Timberlake, Jr., Prohibition and the Progressive Movement (1963) J. Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade (1963) H. Waters, Smugglers of Spirits (1971) J. Kobler, Ardent Spirits (1973) D. Okrent, Last Call (2010).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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