Guadalupe Victoria [key], 1786?–1843, Mexican general, first president of Mexico (1824–29), whose original name was Manuel Félix Fernández. He joined (1811) the revolution proclaimed by Hidalgo y Costilla, and even after the defeat and death of Morelos y Pavón he continued, as a fugitive, to support the revolutionary cause. His name, Guadalupe Victoria [Our Lady of Guadalupe Triumphant], was adopted in honor of the revolutionary standard. The achievement of independence under Agustín de Iturbide did not satisfy him, but he adhered to the Plan of Iguala (1821). Two years later he joined Santa Anna in his revolt against Iturbide's empire. Guadalupe Victoria was chosen as a member of the provisional government and then as president. Factional strife between the conservatives and liberals marred his administration, and the conservatives, under Vice President Bravo, started an unsuccessful revolt. He was succeeded by Vicente Guerrero.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2023, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
See more Encyclopedia articles on: Mexican History: Biographies