Philopoemen [key], c.252–183 b.c., Greek statesman and general, b. Megalopolis. For years he fought as a mercenary in Crete. In 209 he became commander of the Achaean cavalry, with which he defeated the Aetolians and Eleans. He next became (208) general of the Achaean League. He defeated Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, at Mantinea. Nabis, successor of Machanidas, was driven out of Messene and was defeated (201–200) in Laconia by Philopoemen. When Nabis was assassinated, the Spartans were incorporated (192) into the Achaean League, but revolted and were again conquered (188) by Philopoemen. He was captured and poisoned by Messenian rebels. Philopoemen was glorified by his compatriot, the historian Polybius.
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