Seleucia səlo͞o´shə [key], ancient city of Mesopotamia, on the Tigris below modern Baghdad. Founded (c.312 BC) by Seleucus I , it soon replaced Babylon as the main center for east-west commerce through the valley. The city was the eastern capital of the Seleucids until the Parthians conquered it. The Seleucids then moved their capital across the river to Ctesiphon , and Seleucia was thus superseded. In a Parthian campaign Trajan burned the city, and in AD 164 it was destroyed by Romans. Another Seleucia was founded by Seleucus I in Syria as the seaport for Antioch on the Orontes.

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