On the Morning of Christ's Nativity(1629) shows the influence of Pindar, as do the poems written for public occasions by his contemporary Abraham Cowley. However, the Cowleyan (or irregular) ode, originated by Cowley, disregarded the complicated metrical and stanzaic structure of the Pindaric form and employed freely altering stanzas and varying lines. In general the odes of the 19th-century romantic poets—Keats, Shelley, Coleridge—and of such later poets as Swinburne and Hopkins tend to be much freer in form and subject matter than the classical ode. Notable examples of the three kinds of ode are: Pindaric ode, e.g., Thomas Gray's
The Progress of Poesy; Horatian ode, e.g., Keats's
To Autumn; Cowleyan ode, e.g., Wordsworth's
Ode: Intimations of Immortality.Although the ode has been seldom used more recently, Allen Tate in
Ode on the Confederate Deadand Wallace Stevens in
The Idea of Order at Key Westmade successful, and highly personal, use of the form.
See studies by C. Maddison (1960), G. N. Shuster (1965), R. Shafer (1918, repr. 1966), J. D. Jump (1974), and P. H. Fry (1980).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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