In the Middle Ages, Provençal, also called langue d'oc (see langue d'oc and langue d'oïl ), became important as the medium of the great literature of the troubadours , who developed it into a standard local Romance language. After the Albigensian Crusade (see under Albigenses ) weakened S France, Provençal culture declined and in time the Provençal language was wholly replaced by French as the standard language of France. In the 19th cent. an unsuccessful movement arose to bring back the former glory of Provençal by restoring it as the literary and regional tongue of S France.
See D. C. Haskell, Provençal Literature and Language (1925).
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